Almost all soils farmed long-term have been altered from their natural state. Most soils have become degraded due to a loss of SOM from excess tillage leading to soil compaction, soil erosion, and nutrient loss. When soil becomes compacted it is physically changed (less space between soil particles). This reduces root growth and the uptake of plant nutrients, and reduces biological activity, as soil organisms will have less oxygen and less room to move and reproduce (Traunfeld, 2020).
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